When you’re out in the wild and need to call for help, don’t be surprised if your cellphone reads “No Service.”
Victims of severe trauma or acute medical emergencies have the greatest chance of survival if they are delivered to a level-one trauma center within an hour of the onset condition. Bob Amick, a Red Cross Wilderness First Aid instructor-trainer and vice president of young adult programs in the Western Colorado Council, calls this the “golden hour.”
To respond swiftly to a backcountry emergency, leaders and Scouts must:
- Know Wilderness First Aid (Read more about earning a Wilderness First Aid certification in this story.)
- Know how to gather the information needed to call for help, and
- Know how to use one or more backcountry communications devices to initiate a rescue.
Information Is Power
In the event of an emergency in the wild, you or another leader in your group needs to gather information prior to calling for help. This ensures that you “make the most out of battery life and limited signal,” says Nate Lay, chief of medical services at Philmont Scout Ranch.
Lay recommends writing the following information down before calling for help:
- Your location using UTMs, if possible
- Nature of the emergency/what happened
- Treatment already given to patient
- Available phone or radio battery life. Consider setting up a pre-arranged call-back time and turning the device off until then to safe battery life.
- Current weather
- Equipment, water and food that the group has currently
Calling for Help
Amick recommends that leaders consider carrying one (or more) of the following devices to serve as a backup to your phone in an emergency. Choose the right device that will work best where you’re traveling, and get comfortable using the device properly before your trip. Be sure to carry extra batteries or a solar charging panel.
What: A handheld phone, such as the Iridium 9555, that taps into a mobile satellite communications network.
Pros: You can dial your nearest public safety answering point and describe the emergency fully, without the constraint of text characters.
Cons: Dense vegetation or canyons can prevent connection; you must know the number of the nearest public safety answering point — you can’t just dial 911; bulky; expensive (device alone can cost $1,000 or more and require additional service fees); limited battery power
Tips: You can rent a satellite phone for short-term use. Some high-adventure bases like Northern Tier provide these devices to groups traveling in the Boundary Waters.
TWO-METER AMATEUR RADIOS
What: A radio that can be used by a licensed amateur radio operator to call for help using emergency frequencies in a range of about 100 miles.
Pros: Reliable and relatively easy to use once you are licensed; not limited to character text constraints to describe situation; considerably more affordable versus other options (starting at about $100 for a radio device)
Cons: You must be licensed to use these radios; bulky; limited battery power
Tips: Ask a local amateur radio operator to help train your unit. Also, be sure to check with local park rangers or wilderness experts about the available repeater networks and local terrain in the area where you will be exploring.
PERSONAL LOCATOR BEACON (PLB)
What: A compact device that sends a one-way emergency message via satellite to alert rescue teams of your location
Pros: Small; lightweight; easy to use once properly trained; some models, such as the ResQLink PLB ($279.99), require no subscription fees; battery lasts up to five years
Cons: Responders only know your GPS location and that there is an emergency — no additional information is provided to help aid the rescue; one-way device does not provide any feedback to the sender, so you don’t know if your message was received
Tip: Be sure you and the members of your group know how to use the device, as false “triggers” have occurred.
SATELLITE EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION DEVICE (SEND)
What: A compact device that allows two-way satellite messaging with rescue teams or family members at home. Some versions even let you post updates to your social media accounts.
Pros: Two-way messaging means you can be sure your 160-word message was received; allows you to text non-emergency updates to family members at home; device like the DeLorme InReach SE ($299.95) uses Bluetooth to pair with an app on your smartphone for easy message viewing; very reliable messaging under clear skies/little vegetation; “tracking” mode allows at-home viewers to follow your steps
Cons: Requires a subscription service at an additional cost; limited battery power
Tip: Be sure to educate parents before your trip on what to expect when tracking your progress with the SEND devices. “If they don’t know what to expect, they may alert rescue teams when they are not needed,” Lay says.
Has your troop or crew used a backcountry communications device during an outing? Which device did you choose and why? Share your feedback below.
Amateur radio is the way to go. Earn the radio merit badge and participate in Jamboree On The Air. Radios available for $35 on Amazon. Solar rechargeable batteries available. Pass a 35 question test to get licensed. One day classes available..
Additionally, Scouts and Scouters holding a valid FCC Amateur Radio License get to wear an Amateur Radio Operator Rating Strip (Supply No. 617431) on their right sleeve to recognize their ability to communicate in an emergency.
in a case of a real emergency , using ham radio equipment without a license should be permitted .
emergency use of telecommunications equipment normally requiring an fcc license is permitted by non licensed personnel to save life and property. However routine use without required fcc licensing would be a violation of the fcc rules.
It is permitted in a life or death Emergency to use ham radio to help save that life. But getting a license really isnt hard either.
back country communications devices should always be used with a GPS [geosynchronous positioning satellite] receiver to provide exact latitude and longitude coordinates to expedite an accurate and rapid response by mountain rescue and/or aeromedical helicopters.
it is also advisable to carry an automatic external defibrillator [AED] on back country treks. These devices are now small, sturdy, and lightweight enough to carry in a backpack. Sudden Cardiac Arrest [SCA] is the leading cause of death [more than 300,000 annually] in the nation affecting all ages. Only AED’s can correct cardiac disrhythmias and restore normal heartbeat. CPR alone will not do that. For every minute a victim is in cardiac arrest, survival probability goes down by ten percent. Only seven percent of SCA victims suivive on average. Grants for AED’s are available from philanthropic foundations and service organizations.
I personally have suffered from Sudden Cardiac Arrest brought on by an Arrhythmia. They are no joke. No one going back country in a group of more than 2 people should be without one. The extra pack weight can mean the difference between life and death. I was 24 when mine occurred. I now have an IED in my chest permanently. I am on my 2nd Generation currently. I was fine and healthy one day 10 days later I was brought out of an induced coma.
The comment about carrying a GPS in the backcountry is good information. However, to provide the best information for Search and Rescue, the GPS should be set to provide US National Grid coordinates (http://usngcenter.org). This standard to locate points on a map and the ground has been adopted by FEMA for its emergency response and many SAR groups are shifting to this standard (many already used the UTM grid system).
The GPS should also be set to the WGS84 datum to ensure that the coordinates mark the right place on the map/earth.
If an emergency response by SAR is needed and a 911 call is possible, give the location coordinates as individual numbers 17S NB 5188 2045 (as opposed to saying “fifty one eighty eight twenty forty five”) to avoid confusion. The 911 dispatcher may not know exactly what to do with the numbers, but if passed on to the SAR responders, they will know exactly where to find you.
Most SAR groups use UTM coordinates, your GPSR should be able to display in this format.
UTM takes the search out of search and rescue
Here is my personal experience with a rescue I was involved in. I am a Ham radio operator – KE7GVL.
I always carry my HT (Handy Talky) any time I am in the back country. Cell service was not connecting even though we could see the Salt Lake Valley.
By Anne Blankenship, KC7RAG
It was Saturday, Aug. 14, 2010 – Here is a rough draft of an even rougher log of the event:
ll:00 a.m. (actually more like 10:56 – my watch is fast) — KE7GVL called for anyone listening who could
help with an emergency.
KE7IJU (Aaron Hadley, North Salt Lake) answered and asked what was the nature of the emergency.
KE7GVL: (Verle Skidmore, Clearfield) – we have a female who is in and out of consciousness – she is at the
base of the falls but did not fall. We are going to need help to get her out.
KE7IJU: what is your location? Which waterfall?
KE7GVL: We are at the base of the falls up Adams Canyon. The fainting may be caused by a low sugal level,
but the patient is not diabetic.
KE7IJU: I have dispatch on the line, the dispatcher is not
familiar with Adams Canyon — can you give a better
KE7GVL: Adams Canyon is East of Layton Surf and
Swim water tower on Hwy. 89.
911 (relayed): What age is the patient? (Ans. 50-55)
Is the patient alone? (Ans. There are people with her —
her daughter and her husband.) Do not give the patient
anything to eat or drink as there is a possibility of
choking if she loses consciousness. (Ans. Will relay the
11:10 Dispatch reported (by relay) that there were two
paramedic deputies at the trailhead and asked about the
distance to the falls.
KE7GVL Reported the distance was three miles and
reiterated that a litter or some means of transport was
likely to be necessary. Dispatch reported that the deputies
had been considering what equipment to bring and that
they were now headed up the trail.
KE7GVL then asked if dispatch needed any further
information. If not, he would climb down off the rock he
had climbed to get a good path to the repeater, but would
remain on scene to relay any further traffic as needed.
KE7IJU likewise promised to monitor in case of further
11:15 traffic completed.
I went on QRZ to look up the operators. KE7GVL, the
hiker, was listed as Verle Skidmore, of Clearfield.
Note: 2 paramedics came as well as search and rescue. These guys were amazing. They ended up using a helicopter to lift her off the mountain. We had our 11 yr old scouts there and they witnessed the whole thing. It was good to help out!!
You make a great point about how information and communication is power while you are away from civilization. I’ve heard that there are satellite two way radios out there these days. They have extended ranges over traditional radios and can be rented like satellite phones. It’s just another option for adventurers to stay in touch and stay safe while they are away from it all. http://www.internationalsatelliteservices.com/products/msat-g2-fixed
If you are routinely getting contacts 100 miles away with a handheld 2 meter amateur radio, you should be winning a lot of contests.
I’ve made one long distance 2m contact. We were both on mountain peaks and it was a bit over 50 miles.
Carry a sat phone. Seriously. Troops should have one and hand it out for every outing.
Some backcountry or wilderness regions such as the Colorado Rockies have extensive two meter amateur radio repeater networks with patching capabilities that by using dtmf signalling you can reach the desired contact point which can exceed several hundred miles away from your location..
You are correct that unit to unit or simplex communications with five watt hand held radios probably will not provide long distance communication, but again, two meter repeater networks will very effectively do so. Moreover the two meter radios provide quality communications between members of the trek in most situations for logistics and coordination.
As i noted in the Scouting magazine article, satellite phones are always a first choice if available but two meter amateur radio is certainly an excellent backup, especially where having more than one means of obtaining emergency assistance is exemplary of due diligence and risk management planning for backcountry treks.
These articles always focus on big emergencies. What about the Scout who has an intestinal virus and needs to walk out to a different trailhead? Or altitude sickness? Or losing a boot while crossing a stream?
First, think about the risks. Then make a communication plan. That will almost always require two-way communication with an arbitrary person. That means carrying a satellite phone. Period.
Hey, here’s an idea. The BSA could make a deal with a sat phone provider for Scout units. That would be useful.
I would like to ask permission to share this article on my blog, mulliganscampinggear.com. I think my readers would enjoy this info. I am a volunteer Boy Scout Unit Commissioner with Pack 83 in Eastham, Ma. I love Scouting Magazine because it’s a great resource of information for my unit.
absolutely! you are most welcome to share any information provided in the article at your discretion. thans very much for your service to youth and outdoor safety.
robert d. amick
I wanted to thank you for talking about how information is power. As you explained, you should gather some information prior to calling for help to make the most of your time. A friend of mine and I really want to go hiking, and I think that this information would be really helpful in case of an emergency. Thanks!
thanks very much for the kind words. too many folks think that their conventional cell phones/smart phones will work anywhere and find out that in remote and wilderness areas, they do not. an emergency is not a good time to find out that there is no cell tower close enough to them to serve their wireless phone. the delorme and other satellite linked communications devices discussed in the article are relatively inexpensive and well worth investing in when going into areas where cell phone service is limited or non-existent. two meter amateur radio is also an inexpensive resource which often has coverage through repeaters often available in remote areas where no cell service is available. you do of course have to get a no code technician license for two meter amateur radio, but the test is easy and you can get help from local ham operators or the arrl to study for and pass the exam.
best wishes and enjoy your outdoor experiences.
When i go Hiking I find the local national forest frequencies used in the area and program my Motorola radio. Besides it can be fun to listen in.
Searching for info on back country/wilderness communications. I’m a ham extra class and am deeply vested in US Forest Service volunteer leadership. I carry a PLB Beacon, a HT/VHF radio and of course my GPS, map and compass. I can and do use them all.
I agree with all that has been said. A couple interesting data points I’d like to share from the school of hard knocks.
1. Bring your cell phone anyways. Sometimes, just sometimes it will work. Even if your signal strength shows zero bars, dial 911. Every cell phone carrier must monitor the 911 signal whether it is from one of their customers or a competitor. They are obligated by law to route that call to the appropriated 911 facility. Signal strength on your phone only shows the strength of your subscribed service. Not every cell tower is located in the same location, and while Verizon might not get through, Sprint might. I was involved in a patient rescue where my nephew discovered this quite by accident.
2. VHF’s downside is that someone may or may not be listening.
3. Research and program any VHF repeaters in the area you will be traveling. In mountain ranges, it’s very easy to lose VHF repeater access if your line of sight is blocked by a mountain.
4. Dense foliage and Tree canopies often make it near impossible to propagate your signal well. Go to a hill top, a ridge or a cliff.
5. Not every geo in the country has an organized plan for monitoring ham radio. If you can, arrange a check in time daily.
6. If you are bringing your HT, leave it on and monitor the appropriate calling frequency for your area. You might save someone else’s life.
7. In the White Mts. of NH, the forest service uses commercial radios. The FS has five repeaters these HT radios use. The network is pretty locked down. You can listen, but not transmit. So the good news is that if you are lost, once you get a message out, they can contact people on all sides of the forest.
That makes sense to know first aid. You can’t rely on first responders in the woods. That’s why it’s important to have satelite phones to contact the outside world.
Thanks for pointing out that with a satellite phone you can dial the nearest public safety answering point and describe your situation fully without having to worry about the constraint of text characters. My husband loves to go backpacking up in the mountains, and it worries me sometimes that he wouldn’t be able to call someone if he needed too. I am going to try and convince him to get a satellite phone because I think it would help keep him safer.
It is essential to know and use the ten digit phone number of the public safety answering point [PSAP] that is nearest to the potential response area of the emergency for first responders. Calls can be transferred from one PSAP to another PSAP jurisdiction if appropriate, but it is best to know which jurisdiction will receive and coordinate the emergency call. Find out before you go on a trek and talk to the dispatchers about your plans so they have an idea of where you may be, where your car will be parked, and what your itinerary is, so they know where to send help and what the circumstances are. This can be lifesaving where advanced location information and circumstances are already in place with the PSAP dispatchers. Be sure to provide the contact information of a family member or friend who knows about your planned rip and can serve as a resource for additional information about you if the PSAP need more background on you.
Dialing 9-1-1 on a sat phone may not work or get routed into the appropriate
9-1-1 networks with automatic location identification [ALI] and automatic number identification [ANI].
This is also why it is essential to have a GPS locating device to provide the latitude and longitude coordinates from where the call is being made for emergency help. Some SEND [Delorme or equivalent] satellite backcountry communications devices have built in GPS. CHeck specifications. Having both a sat phone and a SEND unit is good redundancy in case one device does not work, you have a backup that will. Failsafe is always important.
Next Generation 9-1-1 [NG-9-1-1] is now available in most public safety answering points that permits texting or using digital devices to access emergency medical dispatchers that can coach the caller in appropriate medical care and send rescue to the site of the emergency which saves valuable time. DIspatchers much prefer voice communications to obtain detailed caller information. Texting is much like using a telegraph versus the far more efficient and effective exchange of voice communications. Would you send a telegram versus making a phone call for an emergent situation? Hot a good idea. Texting sometimes works where digital cell phone voice will not, but that is about the only justification for using digital text messages unless there is no other option. [e.g., hearing or speech impaired, non-english speaking caller, etc.
Also a classic rule in backcountry treks is NEVER go out on a trek alone. Always have a buddy or several friends in a group, so in case someone is injured or becomes ill, there are others to take care of the victim and summon help if necessary. Safety in numbers always applies!!
See Rocky Mountain Rescue Group website on Mountain Safety
While communications are crucial in back-country trips, let’s not forget the importance of wilderness first aid. Appropriate first aid can stop, limit, or slow down the problem until rescue services arrive. Also, do to weather constraints in many backcounty locations with wind, snow, rains, and storms, plan on having to be there awhile in case rescue is delayed. Having the right equipment, skill set, and mindset are all important.
Get an amateur radio technician license. Easy to do. $10-15 for the testing fee. Get some $35 Chinese radios for tactical communications on the trail. Ensure everyone in the team understands they need to have line-of-sight as a general rule, although radio waves sometimes bend around mountains (knife edge diffraction). Take a Garmin inReach Mini and pair it with a smart phone for emergency communications with the outside world.